What is it?
The 1964 Columbia River Treaty (CRT) is an international agreement between Canada and the United States to coordinate flood control and optimize hydroelectric energy production on both sides of the border.
What is the Trust's role?
What's happening now?
Why does it matter?
How do I get involved?
- After a major flood in 1948, Canada and the United States started thinking about cooperative water management on the Columbia River.
- Both countries had growing populations and an increasing need for energy.
- The Columbia River Treaty was ratified in 1964.
- The main benefits are hydroelectricity production and flood control.
- The Mica, Hugh Keenleyside and Duncan dams were built in British Columbia. Libby dam was built in Montana.
- The dams created large reservoirs which flooded valley bottoms and displaced approximately 2,300 people in the Canadian portion of the Columbia Basin.
- The Columbia River Treaty does not have an expiry date. The first chance for either country to terminate the Columbia River Treaty is in 2024, with a minimum of 10 years’ notice.
- On March 14, 2014 the Province of BC announced its decision to continue the Columbia River Treaty and seek improvements within its existing framework. The U.S. Entity announced its recommendation for a modern Treaty framework in December 2013. Read more.
- Current Assured Annual Flood Control provisions expire in 2024. Learn more.
- Columbia Basin Trust was created created in 1995 to benefit the people and communities of the Canadian portion of the Columbia River Basin—the region most affected by the Columbia River Treaty.
If you have a question that is not answered here, ask the Provincial Columbia River Treaty Team.
What is the Columbia River Treaty?
Why was the CRT signed?
Why does the Columbia River Treaty matter?
Who implements the Columbia River Treaty?
2024: Either Country May Terminate
What are the key provisions of the Columbia River Treaty?
What are the roles and responsibilities?
What is Columbia Basin Trust’s role?
What are the benefits of the CRT to the Basin and the Province?
What are the impacts of the CRT in the Basin and the Province?
Why is Libby Dam different from other CRT dams?
What is the lifespan of the Columbia River Treaty dams?
Can the CRT account for potential climate change impacts and if so, how?
What is the future of the Columbia River Treaty?
What is the Non-Treaty Storage Agreement?
Can salmon be returned?
Use this interactive map to learn about the Columbia River system including reservoir levels, dams, reservoirs and hydro generation.
Instructions: Click icons in the table of contents. Zoom in and out to see more or less detail. Use the reset button to return to a map view of the Columbia Basin in Canada. Map contains some large files, data may take a few seconds to load.